Pain is a complex sensation, which originates from the sensitive nerve terminals of the pain zone. The pain is then recognised and codified by the central nervous system which in its turn combats or lessens it.
Any external intervention, either of a physical, pharmacological or surgical nature must be orientated as far as possible towards the ELIMINATION OF THE CAUSE of the alteration.
The fight against PAIN has always been of great interest in past epochs and above all with different concepts, of pain as a symptom.
In the last 10 years, with the advent of new technology, it has been possible to study the nature and mechanisms of pain in depth, with the objective in mind of being able to condition it.
Amongst the researchers who have contributed in the various epochs to explaining the phenomenons connected to the birth of pain and its suppression, we quote: d’Arsonval (1892), P.Bernard (1929), Le Go (1939), Fischer (1939), Guttman (1942), Nemec (1950), Melzack and Wall (1965), and then Hallin and Torebvjork and Howson (1978).
The “GATE CONTROL” theory of Melzack and Wall currently, is of the most interest. The construction criteria of modern electro-physiotherapical equipment are based on “Gate Control”.
The “Gate Control” theory
By means of special adhesive electrodes, the electrical impulses are applied to the skin of the painful area; therefore, through “faster” sensitive nervous fibres, they reach the pain management centres in the spinal cord, and prevent the transmission of pain to the brain.
Hyper-secretion of endorphins
Moreover the electrostimulation stimulate our organism to increase the endorphin production, so raising the threshold of perception of the pain and effectively acting against the chronic pain.
Many people feel immediate benefit from TENS. However a minority may only achieve benefit after repeated treatment sessions and over an extended period of time.