• Placement of electrodes

    We know that an electrical generator, to produce a current flow, must be “closed” on a load. The load, in the electro stimulation, is represented by the muscle to be stimulated. The connection between the generator and the treatment area (load) will be performed by means of a pair of conductive electrodes, having the job

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  • Positioning of the electrodes in the analgesics stimulation (TENS)

    The success of the therapy could be conditioned from different factors and can be different from patient to patient. The position of the electrodes is one of the elements that can highly influence the therapeutic effectiveness. The therapist will have the patience to try different alternative positions, so that individualise most effective and the more

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  • The neuro-muscular stimulation LEVEL

    There are no mathematical formulae for determining the optimum level of electrical stimulation. The level of intensity must be enough to cause the required level of contraction but without discomfort or pain for the patient. It is also important not to forget that the quantity of muscular fibres recruited depends not only on the intensity

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  • The pulse-width (NMS)

    According to current scientific evidence, the most suitable waveform in order to obtain muscle contraction, using low energy impulses, is the symmetrical two-phase impulse. The impulse must be wide enough to allow a transfer of energy which is sufficient to excite the muscle fibres. A width which is greater does not give any advantage and

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  • The FREQUENCY of pulses in the analgesic stimulation (TENS)

    The stimulation frequency would have an important role in the treatment efficiency – but there are many differences of opinion which exist even now; LOW frequencies (around 10Hz) should produce a delayed, and less intense analgesic action but longer lasting, whereas frequencies above 50Hz should determine a faster analgesic effect but of shorter duration. Some

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  • The ENDORPHINS

    Of course the gate control theory is not the only one in the pain modulation field; a more up-to-date interpretation foresees a chemical-humoral control mechanism, based on the stimulated production of endogenous substances “similar to morphine” (bodily produced morphine) the so called endorphins and enkephalins. These both act on the pain control system, decrease the

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  • The stimulation frequency

    We defined the better wave shape to be used, and a single pulse could also produce a momentary contraction like a “wriggle”; any way, to obtain a sustained contraction, we must supply a pulse train, characterised by a “frequency” (at least 30 pulses per second). Frequency is the repetition rate of pulses in a time

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  • The “gate control” theory

    R. Melzac and P. Wall’s gate control theory presented in 1965, is based on the existence of different types of nerve fibers in charge of “sensation” transmission, from the human body fringe area to the central nervous system. In this way we have: – Small diameter myelinic fibers type A (delta) and unmyelinated type C.

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  • Pain and electrical stimulation

    Pain is a complex sensation, which originates from the sensitive nerve terminals of the pain zone. The pain is then recognised and codified by the central nervous system which in its turn combats or lessens it. Any external intervention, either of a physical, pharmacological or surgical nature must be orientated as far as possible towards

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  • Perineal electrostimulation and biofeedback

    Pelvic floor or perineal stimulation is a popular method for treating incontinence. Pelvic floor electrostimulation successfully restores continence, especially in female patients.
 Pelvic floor electrostimulation is normally applied using vaginal electrodes (probes), characterised by at least two electrodes, often in the form of rings. The aim is to stimulate the group of perineal muscles, especially

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